Kashmir Dispute Factline
Kashmir is the oldest unresolved dispute before the UN since 1948
Following is the factline to understand the Kashmir dispute.
- 1947- The year of independence for Pakistan and India after the end of British rule
- 1947- The Maharaja of Kashmir decides to go to India by signing a treaty of accession and this unnatural treaty laid a foundation for kashmir dispute. The Pakistani tribal army attacked Kashmir. Both newly independent countries fought the war in Kashmir.
- 1948- Kashmir goes to the UN Security Council as India knocked the door of the UK. Resolution 47 calls for both countries go for a ceasefire. The resolution states a referendum would be held in the disputed territory, letting Kashmiri people choose their fate.
- 1951- India holds elections in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir. It further says that after these elections, the referendum is meaningless. The UN and Pakistan demand referendum across the state.
- 1953- India arrests Prime Minister Sheikh Abdullah as he favors the referendum for the state. It delays accession to India. India manages to have a new government in the valley to ratify the accession.
- 1957- The constitution of Indian held Kashmir contains the clause that it is part of India.
- The 1950s- China occupies the eastern Kashmir in this decade on a gradual basis that is known as Aksai Chin.
- 1962- China and India fought a war over Aksai Chin. India lost that war.
- 1963- Pakistan signs Trans-Karakoram Tract of Kashmir and gives a part up to China.
- 1965- Pakistan and India fought a war over the Kashmir issue. It ended at a ceasefire, and both countries remained at previous positions again.
- 1971-72- A war between the two neighbors led to the Simla Agreement in 1972, and the line between Indian and Pakistani held Kashmir was regarded as the Line of Control. This agreement sets the foundations of relations between both countries.
- 1974- In that year, the Opposition Plebiscite Front in Indian held Kashmir agreed on greater autonomy in Jammu and Kashmir. As a result, Sheikh Abdullah becomes the chief minister. He left demanding the referendum.
- 1984- India invades the Siachen Glacier. It did not have a clear boundary that was drawn with the Line of Control.
- 1987- Election held in Indian held Jammu and Kashmir those were disputed. It led to the insurgency for freedom in the state. Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) demanded independence and started the insurgency. India blames Pakistan for the insurgency that Pakistan denies.
- 1990- The Indian Army opened fire on protestors, killing 100 at Gawakadal Bridge. It escalated insurgency in the valley. Armed Forces Special Powers Act was put in J&K.
- The 1990s- The decade of the large scale of insurgency
- 1999- India and Pakistan fought a war on the Kashmir issue. It is known as the Kargil war between the two neighbors.
- 2001-2004- Efforts made to bring issues between the countries normal. Attacks and insurgency continued in the Indian held state territory. The notable attack at this time was in the state parliament.
- 2010- The Indian Army kills a demonstrator. Huge demonstrations erupted in the valley. The government has to announce measures to east tension that brought demonstrations on a normal level.
- 2011- Human Rights Commission of India admitted the presence of unmarked graves near the Line of Control. They were 2000 in number. They were unidentified and close to the Line of Control. It feared that the Indian Army had killed them after the arrest.
- 2013- A fighter Mohammad Afzal Guru was hanged as he was accused of attacks on state parliament in the year 2001. The same year, both countries’ leadership met and agreed to decrease the level of tension over the LOC.
- 2014- India announces that it is not going to have talks with Pakistan in response to Pakistan’s High Commissioner’s meeting with Kashmiri leaders in Delhi. These leaders call for a referendum in the state and do not consider Kashmir the part of India.
- 2015- BJP takes the government of Indian held Kashmir for the first time. It made an alliance with the People’s Democratic Party. In the same year, the government imposed a ban on eating beef. It led to the strike and closing markets. Pro-independence and referendum leaders called for the strike.
- 2016- Indian forces killed popular militant Burhan Wani, and it sparked protests in the state. Authorities imposed curfew in the state. In the same year, Human Rights Watch calls for not burning schools in Indian held Kashmir. Seven Pakistan soldiers killed in the Line of Control and violence rose.
- 2017- Thousands of Kashmiri people came out and defied the curfew by attending a Kashmiri fighter’s funeral. Extreme protests and clashes erupted in Indian held Kashmir on the eve of Burhan Wani’s anniversary.
Kashmir belongs to the Kashmiris. Not to Indians. Not to Pakistanis.
Current Situation of Kashmir Dispute
2019- Indian government took a one-sided step and revoked the special status of Jammu and Kashmir and made the kashmir dispute more intensified. It did not arrest pro-independence or referendum leaders only, but also pro Indian Kashmir leaders. Until present, Jammu and Kashmir are under curfew, and all leadership is under arrest.
Human Rights organizations call for easing tensions in Indian held Kashmir to resolve this burning kashmir dispute. President of the USA, Donald Trump, shows interest in arbitration between India and Pakistan.